About Natural Gas
The world of Natural Gas is complex and highly technically driven.
Natural Gas is a backbone to the Energy industry in most parts of the world.
Natural Gas has specific advantages over other forms of energy.
The trade of natural gas as one of the most important forms of energy
has developed over the past 50 years from a regional to a completely globalized business.
Ways of transportation of natural gas are:
• as natural gas (NG) in pipelines with pressures ranging from millibar to more than 100 bar
• as liquefied natural gas (LNG) at temperatures below - 160°C mostly in seagoing ships
• as bottled or containerized compressed natural gas (CNG) at pressures of up to 250 bar
• as bottled liquefied gas (LPG) (propane or butane)
Natural Gas is traded in large quantities, under various pressure conditions from atmospheric pressure
to very high pressure, under different temperature conditions from very low temperatures
< -160°C for LNG up to + 70°C and more after compressor stations.
Natural Gas is transported over long distances through pipelines onshore or subsea, as liquefied natural gas (LNG)
at very low tmepratures in large vessels oversea, or as compressed natural gas (CNG) under very high pressure
in bottles or trucks. It is also being sold als Liquified Petrol Gas (LPG) better known as Propane or Butane in bottles
for mainly residential or commercial use. In 2011 approx. 3500 billion standard m_ of natural gas were produced,
transported and traded safely. For trading natural gas it is mandatory to measure the energy
to be able to bill the energy sold.
Natural Gas, as the word "natural" says, is mainly a product from nature with many
different compositions. Chemically Natural Gas is a composition of low molecular hydrocarbons
in gaseous phase under atmospheric pressure conditions and temperatures,
mainly made up of methane CH4 with further hydrocarbon up to C9+ and other traceable components.
Natural Gas is:
• the lowest carbon footprint fossil fuel
• available in many areas of the world
• found in many different natural underground "storages"
- conventional onshore and offshore
• as low molecular hydrocarbon in gaseous phase in oil fields
• as natural gas in porous stones like limestones
• in hard rock formations like shale as "shalegas"
• in coalfields as "coal bed methane" or "CBM"
• subsea as hydrate
• produced as "bio-methane" or "synthetic Methane"
• transported over long distances by
- pipeline (NG)
- seagoing vessels (LNG, CNG)
- truck (LPG, CNG)
• stored in large quantities above ground or underground in
- the gas transportation network
- above ground steel spheres or pipe bundle tanks
- depleted gas fields
- in salt caverns
- in aquifers
• mixed from various points of the world
• compressed for transportation and storage
• used in many ways
- power generation
- heating plants
- combined heat & power stations
- as fuel for stationary power plants (NG)
- as fuel for vehicles (LPG, CNG)
- as fuel for seagoing vessels (LNG)
- feedstock for industrial production
- feedstock for fertilizer plants